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what is budding & marcotting?

pls. answer this is our report tomorrow!!!

Marcotting or air-layering has been practiced in China for thousands of years, and is the most popular method of propagation. A branch on the parent tree is girdled down to the central hardwood to encourage adventitious rooting at the distal cut surface. Care must be taken to remove all the cambial tissue surrounding the white central wood. Otherwise, more vascular tissue is produced rather than new roots.

The marcot is detached from the tree after a few months and planted out in the field after a year or so. The success rate for commercial nurseries is normally more than 80 percent. Marcots come into bearing earlier than slower-growing cuttings or grafted trees, but have a shallow root system, with some cultivars susceptible to wind damage.

Upright branches about 2 cm in diameter and 80 cm long from well-developed trees, free from pests and disease are recommended. Rooting is best on sun-lit branches with mature growth. Marcots taken from thin, shaded branches often die or take longer to establish. Most authors recommend marcotting during the warm humid part of the year, when the roots are less likely to dry out.

The traditional method used soil, organic matter, sawdust and woodchips wrapped in cloth to enclose the marcot. However, moist peat moss and polyethylene bags are now exploited in many areas (Plate 5). The use of the plastic alleviates the problem of daily hand watering. A medium consisting of 100 percent peat moss and limed to a pH of 6 is ideal. Auxins sometimes improve rooting, but are not essential. Similarly, there is no need to girdle the branches beforehand.

Marcots are detached from the parent tree once they have formed sufficient roots to survive on their own. The appearance of old roots which turn brown is a good indication. Branches should be trimmed to form a good framework and 50 percent of the leaves removed to reduce transpiration. The marcot should be carefully removed from the plastic since the roots are very delicate at this stage, and planted in a well drained potting mix in a warm protected spot. A little shade at this stage often helps. Intermittent misting is also a good idea. You can retain more of the leaves and improve the turn-around of plants. Marcots seldom recover once they have lost their leaves.

Fertilizers can be applied once the young plants begin to produce new growth. The marcots should be gradually hardened off after completing two leaf flushes under full sun, before being transplanted in the field. Bare defoliated marcots sometimes sent overseas without soil can be difficult to establish.

What is grafting or budding?
Grafting is any method which surgically connects a part of one plant to a part of another plant; the two then grow together to become a single plant. The top part, which will produce the branches, leaves, flowers, and fruit, is known as the “scion” (pronounced sigh-on). The lower portion, which produces the root system and the very bottom part of the trunk, is known as the rootstock, understock, or simply “stock.” The scar where the two are joined, and which may remain visible throughout the life of the tree, is the graft union, bud union, or simply “union.” Budding is simply a method of grafting in which the original scion had a single axillary bud eye on it (as opposed to a bigger scion with more bud eyes). An axillary bud, known to budders as an “eye,” is the tiny green bump just above the point of attachment of a leaf, on the stem.

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LIONEL LINES PREWAR 1682 NEW YORK CENTRAL WOOD SIDE CABOOSE TUSCAN 1933 1942
LIONEL LINES PREWAR 1682 NEW YORK CENTRAL WOOD SIDE CABOOSE TUSCAN 1933 1942
$9.95
MTH O GAUGE 20 91595 NEW YORK CENTRAL WOOD SIDED CABOOSE NEW IN ORIGINAL BOX
MTH O GAUGE 20 91595 NEW YORK CENTRAL WOOD SIDED CABOOSE NEW IN ORIGINAL BOX
$44.99
LIONEL TRAIN NYC NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD WOOD SIDED CABOOSE CAR W BOX 6 17600
LIONEL TRAIN NYC NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD WOOD SIDED CABOOSE CAR W BOX 6 17600
$10.49
O 027 Vintage Built Wood Jersey Central Lines CNJ 49057 Box Car
O 027 Vintage Built Wood Jersey Central Lines CNJ 49057 Box Car
$12.00
Atlas O 3001512 2 Central Creamery 40 Wood Reefer 3 rail 7401
Atlas O 3001512 2 Central Creamery 40 Wood Reefer 3 rail 7401
$67.00
Atlas O 3002512 1 Central Creamery 40 Wood Reefer 2 rail 7400
Atlas O 3002512 1 Central Creamery 40 Wood Reefer 2 rail 7400
$72.00
handbuilt o scale freight coal gondola car new york central nyc rare wood metal
handbuilt o scale freight coal gondola car new york central nyc rare wood metal
$29.99
MTH Premier 30 7124 Wood STOCK CAR CPRR Central Pacific RR 1094
MTH Premier 30 7124 Wood STOCK CAR CPRR Central Pacific RR 1094
$11.99
Lionel New York Central Wood Sided Caboose 0  027 Scale 17600 NYC 6 17600
Lionel New York Central Wood Sided Caboose 0 027 Scale 17600 NYC 6 17600
$39.00
K Line New York Central CLASSIC WOOD SIDED REEFER with original box 642 1751
K Line New York Central CLASSIC WOOD SIDED REEFER with original box 642 1751
$12.00
GRAND CENTRAL GOLD MINE O On30 Model Railroad Structure Unptd Wood Kit CM78916
GRAND CENTRAL GOLD MINE O On30 Model Railroad Structure Unptd Wood Kit CM78916
$71.65
LIONEL 6 17600 NEW YORK CENTRAL WOOD SIDED LIGHTED CABOOSE NEW O GAUGE TRAIN CAR
LIONEL 6 17600 NEW YORK CENTRAL WOOD SIDED LIGHTED CABOOSE NEW O GAUGE TRAIN CAR
$10.50
O Scale Joe Fischer New York Central Heavyweight Diner Lounge F P NO RESERVE
O Scale Joe Fischer New York Central Heavyweight Diner Lounge F P NO RESERVE
$100.00
Lionel 6 17600 New York Central Wood Sided Caboose
Lionel 6 17600 New York Central Wood Sided Caboose
$28.41
K Line K762 7486 NYC New York Central Historical Art Wood Sided Reefer NOS
K Line K762 7486 NYC New York Central Historical Art Wood Sided Reefer NOS
$24.95
MTH RailKing 30 7354 19th Century Era Wooden Tank Car Central Pacific 12065
MTH RailKing 30 7354 19th Century Era Wooden Tank Car Central Pacific 12065
$23.00
MTH Caboose New York Central Railking O O27 NYC Caboose 30 7701
MTH Caboose New York Central Railking O O27 NYC Caboose 30 7701
$38.95
Lionel 51701 New York Central Semi Scale Caboose
Lionel 51701 New York Central Semi Scale Caboose
$149.95
LIONEL 6 17600 STD O SCALE NYC NEW YORK CENTRAL WOOD SIDE CABOOSE w ILLUM  LNOB
LIONEL 6 17600 STD O SCALE NYC NEW YORK CENTRAL WOOD SIDE CABOOSE w ILLUM LNOB
$24.50
Lionel 6 17600 New York Central Woodside Illuminated Caboose Box
Lionel 6 17600 New York Central Woodside Illuminated Caboose Box
$0.99
Atlas O 3001512 2 Central Creamery 40 Wood Reefer 7401 3 Rail
Atlas O 3001512 2 Central Creamery 40 Wood Reefer 7401 3 Rail
$47.21
LIONEL 6424 SCALE 6 19486 NEW YORK CENTRAL 40ft FLAT CAR w CUT WOOD PLANKS NIB
LIONEL 6424 SCALE 6 19486 NEW YORK CENTRAL 40ft FLAT CAR w CUT WOOD PLANKS NIB
$44.99
MHT Rail King New York Central Die Cast Woodsided Caboose  30 8501
MHT Rail King New York Central Die Cast Woodsided Caboose 30 8501
$50.00
LIONEL 6 17600 NEW YORK CENTRAL MAROON WOOD SIDED CABOOSE EX+ IN ORIG BOX
LIONEL 6 17600 NEW YORK CENTRAL MAROON WOOD SIDED CABOOSE EX+ IN ORIG BOX
$39.95
LIONEL TRAINS NO 17611 NEW YORK CENTRAL STANDARD O WOODSIDE CABOOSE 1990
LIONEL TRAINS NO 17611 NEW YORK CENTRAL STANDARD O WOODSIDE CABOOSE 1990
$44.95
Lionel 6 17600 New York Central Wood Sided Caboose with Box
Lionel 6 17600 New York Central Wood Sided Caboose with Box
$10.00
vintage new york central lines parlor observation 428 rubber wood stamps
vintage new york central lines parlor observation 428 rubber wood stamps
$25.00
LIONEL 17611 NEW YORK CENTRAL WOOD SIDED CABOOSE STD O ILLUM NIOB SHARP
LIONEL 17611 NEW YORK CENTRAL WOOD SIDED CABOOSE STD O ILLUM NIOB SHARP
$48.95
Lionel O Scale 6 17600 New York Central Wood Sided Caboose
Lionel O Scale 6 17600 New York Central Wood Sided Caboose
$49.95
Lionel No 6462 New York Central Gondola Black With Wood Barrels
Lionel No 6462 New York Central Gondola Black With Wood Barrels
$29.99
Lionel 17600 New York Central Wood Sided Caboose w Original Box
Lionel 17600 New York Central Wood Sided Caboose w Original Box
$29.99
1987 Lionel 6 17600 NYC New York Central Caboose L0018
1987 Lionel 6 17600 NYC New York Central Caboose L0018
$47.00
Lionel 6462 New York Central NYC Gondola w barrell load  box
Lionel 6462 New York Central NYC Gondola w barrell load box
$25.00
Lionel 6 17600 New York Central wood side illuminated caboose
Lionel 6 17600 New York Central wood side illuminated caboose
$38.98
LIONEL 6 6920 BOSTON  ALBANY NEW YORK CENTRAL WOOD SIDED CABOOSE LIGHTED NIB
LIONEL 6 6920 BOSTON ALBANY NEW YORK CENTRAL WOOD SIDED CABOOSE LIGHTED NIB
$69.99
Lionel  6907 New York Central Caboose in the original shipping box
Lionel 6907 New York Central Caboose in the original shipping box
$71.00
LIONEL SCALE 6 17600 NEW YORK CENTRAL WOOD SIDE NYC STYLE LIGHTED CABOOSE
LIONEL SCALE 6 17600 NEW YORK CENTRAL WOOD SIDE NYC STYLE LIGHTED CABOOSE
$49.99
LIONEL POST WAR 6462 NEW YORK CENTRAL GONDOLA CAR WITH WOOD LOAD
LIONEL POST WAR 6462 NEW YORK CENTRAL GONDOLA CAR WITH WOOD LOAD
$12.99
K4 O Decals Michigan Central Wood Ice Reefer White New York Central
K4 O Decals Michigan Central Wood Ice Reefer White New York Central
$6.85
LIONEL 6907 New York Central Woodside Caboose 1986 NIB
LIONEL 6907 New York Central Woodside Caboose 1986 NIB
$139.00


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