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what is budding & marcotting?

pls. answer this is our report tomorrow!!!

Marcotting or air-layering has been practiced in China for thousands of years, and is the most popular method of propagation. A branch on the parent tree is girdled down to the central hardwood to encourage adventitious rooting at the distal cut surface. Care must be taken to remove all the cambial tissue surrounding the white central wood. Otherwise, more vascular tissue is produced rather than new roots.

The marcot is detached from the tree after a few months and planted out in the field after a year or so. The success rate for commercial nurseries is normally more than 80 percent. Marcots come into bearing earlier than slower-growing cuttings or grafted trees, but have a shallow root system, with some cultivars susceptible to wind damage.

Upright branches about 2 cm in diameter and 80 cm long from well-developed trees, free from pests and disease are recommended. Rooting is best on sun-lit branches with mature growth. Marcots taken from thin, shaded branches often die or take longer to establish. Most authors recommend marcotting during the warm humid part of the year, when the roots are less likely to dry out.

The traditional method used soil, organic matter, sawdust and woodchips wrapped in cloth to enclose the marcot. However, moist peat moss and polyethylene bags are now exploited in many areas (Plate 5). The use of the plastic alleviates the problem of daily hand watering. A medium consisting of 100 percent peat moss and limed to a pH of 6 is ideal. Auxins sometimes improve rooting, but are not essential. Similarly, there is no need to girdle the branches beforehand.

Marcots are detached from the parent tree once they have formed sufficient roots to survive on their own. The appearance of old roots which turn brown is a good indication. Branches should be trimmed to form a good framework and 50 percent of the leaves removed to reduce transpiration. The marcot should be carefully removed from the plastic since the roots are very delicate at this stage, and planted in a well drained potting mix in a warm protected spot. A little shade at this stage often helps. Intermittent misting is also a good idea. You can retain more of the leaves and improve the turn-around of plants. Marcots seldom recover once they have lost their leaves.

Fertilizers can be applied once the young plants begin to produce new growth. The marcots should be gradually hardened off after completing two leaf flushes under full sun, before being transplanted in the field. Bare defoliated marcots sometimes sent overseas without soil can be difficult to establish.

What is grafting or budding?
Grafting is any method which surgically connects a part of one plant to a part of another plant; the two then grow together to become a single plant. The top part, which will produce the branches, leaves, flowers, and fruit, is known as the “scion” (pronounced sigh-on). The lower portion, which produces the root system and the very bottom part of the trunk, is known as the rootstock, understock, or simply “stock.” The scar where the two are joined, and which may remain visible throughout the life of the tree, is the graft union, bud union, or simply “union.” Budding is simply a method of grafting in which the original scion had a single axillary bud eye on it (as opposed to a bigger scion with more bud eyes). An axillary bud, known to budders as an “eye,” is the tiny green bump just above the point of attachment of a leaf, on the stem.

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Lionel 17600 New York Central Wood Sided Caboose w Original Box
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Lionel 6 17600 New York Central Wood Sided Caboose
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Lionel 6 6907 New York Central Wood Sided Caboose
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VINTAGE O SCALE 40 MISSOURI CENTRAL GONDOLA CAR WITH WOOD LOAD MC34557
VINTAGE O SCALE 40 MISSOURI CENTRAL GONDOLA CAR WITH WOOD LOAD MC34557
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K Line K 642 1751 New York Central Classic Wood sided Reefer Boxcar
K Line K 642 1751 New York Central Classic Wood sided Reefer Boxcar
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MTH Railking O O27 30 7701 New York Central Caboose NIB
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LIONEL TRAINS NO 17600 NEW YORK CENTRAL WOOD SIDED CABOOSE 1987 VERY NICE
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Vintage Wood NEW ENGLAND CENTRAL Caboose Train Car O Scale
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Atlas O 2001815 1 Central of Georgia Wood Chip Service 70 Ton 9 Panel Hooper
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Atlas O 2001815 2 Central of Georgia Wood Chip Service 70 Ton 9 Panel Hooper
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LIONEL 17611 NEW YORK CENTRAL WOOD SIDED CABOOSE NEW W20
LIONEL 17611 NEW YORK CENTRAL WOOD SIDED CABOOSE NEW W20
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MTH RAILKING RUGGED RAILS new york central wood sided caboose car O scale
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LIONEL SCALE 6 17600 NEW YORK CENTRAL WOOD SIDE NYC STYLE LIGHTED CABOOSE
LIONEL SCALE 6 17600 NEW YORK CENTRAL WOOD SIDE NYC STYLE LIGHTED CABOOSE
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K Line New York Central Wood Caboose w Light
K Line New York Central Wood Caboose w Light
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New York Central MDT 9000 O scale Metal Wood Beautifully Built Kit
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Lionel New York Central Wood Sided Caboose 6 17600 NIB C9 new in BOX
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lionel 17600 New York Central wood sided caboose
lionel 17600 New York Central wood sided caboose
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Lionel 26181 New York Central NYC Wood Sided Reefer O 027 Freight Car 2006
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LIONEL 6 17600 NEW YORK CENTRAL MAROON WOOD SIDED CABOOSE EX+ IN ORIG BOX
LIONEL 6 17600 NEW YORK CENTRAL MAROON WOOD SIDED CABOOSE EX+ IN ORIG BOX
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Lionel New York Central Wood Sided Caboose 6 17600 New in Box
Lionel New York Central Wood Sided Caboose 6 17600 New in Box
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LIONEL POST WAR 6462 NEW YORK CENTRAL GONDOLA W WOOD BARREL LOAD
LIONEL POST WAR 6462 NEW YORK CENTRAL GONDOLA W WOOD BARREL LOAD
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O Scale Delaware  Hudson Boston  Maine Me Central Sign Kit 99032 Laser Cut
O Scale Delaware Hudson Boston Maine Me Central Sign Kit 99032 Laser Cut
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O Scale 2R Toledo  Ohio Central RY Wood Side Boxcar builded up kit
O Scale 2R Toledo Ohio Central RY Wood Side Boxcar builded up kit
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Lionel 6 17600 0 scale New York Central lighted wood sided caboose Rd17600
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LIONEL 6424 SCALE 6 19486 NEW YORK CENTRAL 40ft FLAT CAR w CUT WOOD PLANKS NIB
LIONEL 6424 SCALE 6 19486 NEW YORK CENTRAL 40ft FLAT CAR w CUT WOOD PLANKS NIB
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LIONEL 17611 NEW YORK CENTRAL WOOD SIDED CABOOSE STD O ILLUM NIOB SHARP
LIONEL 17611 NEW YORK CENTRAL WOOD SIDED CABOOSE STD O ILLUM NIOB SHARP
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LIONEL POST WAR 6462 NEW YORK CENTRAL GONDOLA CAR WITH WOOD LOAD VG ORIG
LIONEL POST WAR 6462 NEW YORK CENTRAL GONDOLA CAR WITH WOOD LOAD VG ORIG
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Lionel 5732 Central New Jersey CNJ Wood Sided Reefer O 027 Freight Car 1985 86
Lionel 5732 Central New Jersey CNJ Wood Sided Reefer O 027 Freight Car 1985 86
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Lionel O Scale 6 17600 New York Central Wood Sided Caboose
Lionel O Scale 6 17600 New York Central Wood Sided Caboose
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1987 Lionel 6 17600 NYC New York Central Caboose L0018
1987 Lionel 6 17600 NYC New York Central Caboose L0018
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Lionel No 6462 New York Central Gondola Black With Wood Barrels
Lionel No 6462 New York Central Gondola Black With Wood Barrels
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LIONEL 6 6920 BOSTON ALBANY NEW YORK CENTRAL WOOD SIDED CABOOSE LIGHTED NIB
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Weaver O Scale ULTRA LINE WOOD SIDE REFRIGERATOR NEW YORK CENTRAL 3 RAIL NOS
Weaver O Scale ULTRA LINE WOOD SIDE REFRIGERATOR NEW YORK CENTRAL 3 RAIL NOS
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Atlas O 3001512 2 Central Creamery 40 Wood Reefer 7401 3 Rail
Atlas O 3001512 2 Central Creamery 40 Wood Reefer 7401 3 Rail
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Lionel  6907 New York Central Caboose in the original shipping box
Lionel 6907 New York Central Caboose in the original shipping box
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LIONEL SCALE 6 17600 NEW YORK CENTRAL WOOD SIDE NYC STYLE LIGHTED CABOOSE
LIONEL SCALE 6 17600 NEW YORK CENTRAL WOOD SIDE NYC STYLE LIGHTED CABOOSE
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LIONEL 6907 New York Central Woodside Caboose 1986 NIB
LIONEL 6907 New York Central Woodside Caboose 1986 NIB
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Bar Mills 99032HO OBillboardDelHud Me Central BostMELargeNew Mint In Box
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New Boxed Lionel NYC New York Central Wood Sided Caboose 6 17600
New Boxed Lionel NYC New York Central Wood Sided Caboose 6 17600
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