Archives

Lionel Cowen

what materials are used to make torches/flashlights? ?

could anyone tell me what materials have been used to make torches/flashlights, ever since they were invented or as far back as possible - and maybe why new materials have been used and older materials were dropped, or a site that helps me with this information. it will be very very helpful! thank you!! ^ w ^

Modern flashlights are made using a standard bulb (normally with tungsten as the filament), a wire, switch, glass or clear plastic lens and plastic housing. Normally they are powered by alkaline batteries, or Lithium cells. Some use LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) and can produce different coloured lights (White, yellow, blue..) Different gasses in bulbs will produce different colours.

You can get some flashlights with metal housing, but this has to be insulated so it doesnt conduct the energy out of the batteries and create a short circuit.

Some Flash lights use Halogen bubs, although these can give off a brighter beam, they are more flagile and expensive.

Prior to electicity candles were used, and then gas lamps. However in many situations this was, and still is, a health hazzard (e.g. mine workers. Naked flame + coal and gas...)

Here is apgae on the history of torches. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flashlight

Hre is the guy who invented it http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joshua_Lionel_Cowen

In general most materials were replace by lighter, safer and cheaper materials.

I hope that helps.

Find Lionel Cowen On eBay Below:

Lionel O Gauge Joshua Lionel Cowen Bay Window Caboose 6 642111D
Lionel O Gauge Joshua Lionel Cowen Bay Window Caboose 6 642111D
$27.00
Lionel 6 9430 Joshua Lionel Cowen Boxcar The Standard Gauge Years11G
Lionel 6 9430 Joshua Lionel Cowen Boxcar The Standard Gauge Years11G
$24.00
LIONEL 9434 JOSHUA LIONEL COWEN THE MAN BOXCAR 0 027 MINT W11
LIONEL 9434 JOSHUA LIONEL COWEN THE MAN BOXCAR 0 027 MINT W11
$31.95
LIONEL TRAINS 6421 JOSHUA LIONEL COWEN BAY WINDOW CABOOSE LNIOB SHARP
LIONEL TRAINS 6421 JOSHUA LIONEL COWEN BAY WINDOW CABOOSE LNIOB SHARP
$35.00
Lionel O gauge Jasshua Lionel Cowen Reefer car  19528 Brand new Mint
Lionel O gauge Jasshua Lionel Cowen Reefer car 19528 Brand new Mint
$30.00
Lionel 6 9429 Joshua Lionel Cowen Boxcar The Early years
Lionel 6 9429 Joshua Lionel Cowen Boxcar The Early years
$25.00
Lionel 6 8210 Joshua L Cowen 4 6 4 Steam Locomotive  Tender LN Box
Lionel 6 8210 Joshua L Cowen 4 6 4 Steam Locomotive Tender LN Box
$80.88
EASTWOOD LIONEL JOSHUA LIONEL COWEN SIGNATURE EDITION TRUCKS 2 PIECE SET
EASTWOOD LIONEL JOSHUA LIONEL COWEN SIGNATURE EDITION TRUCKS 2 PIECE SET
$49.80
Lionel 6 19528 Joshua L Cowen Reefer Car NEW OB
Lionel 6 19528 Joshua L Cowen Reefer Car NEW OB
$12.99
NIB Lionel O Gauge Joshua Lionel Cowen The Man Box Car 6 9434
NIB Lionel O Gauge Joshua Lionel Cowen The Man Box Car 6 9434
$40.00
NIB Lionel O Gauge Joshua Lionel Cowen The Pre War Years Box Car 6 9431
NIB Lionel O Gauge Joshua Lionel Cowen The Pre War Years Box Car 6 9431
$35.00
NIB Lionel O Gauge Joshua Lionel Cowen The Early Years Box Car 6 9429
NIB Lionel O Gauge Joshua Lionel Cowen The Early Years Box Car 6 9429
$40.00
LIONEL TRAIN JOSHUA COWEN THE EARLY YEARS RAILROAD FREIGHT BOX CAR 6 9429
LIONEL TRAIN JOSHUA COWEN THE EARLY YEARS RAILROAD FREIGHT BOX CAR 6 9429
$22.00
NIB Lionel O Gauge Joshua Lionel Cowen Standard Gauge Years Box Car 6 9430
NIB Lionel O Gauge Joshua Lionel Cowen Standard Gauge Years Box Car 6 9430
$38.00
LIONEL O JOSHUA LIONEL COWEN 7474 1  9697 4 ROLLING STOCK LOT
LIONEL O JOSHUA LIONEL COWEN 7474 1 9697 4 ROLLING STOCK LOT
$9.50
ALL ABOARD THE STORY OF JOSHUA LIONEL COWEN
ALL ABOARD THE STORY OF JOSHUA LIONEL COWEN
$12.99
Vintage Lionel 6 9429 Joshua Lionel Cowen Box Car The Early Years 1980 NEW
Vintage Lionel 6 9429 Joshua Lionel Cowen Box Car The Early Years 1980 NEW
$49.99
Lionel 6 19528 Joshua L Cowen Reefer
Lionel 6 19528 Joshua L Cowen Reefer
$29.99
1992 Lionel 6 19528 Joshua Lionel Cowen Reefer needs truck repair see pics
1992 Lionel 6 19528 Joshua Lionel Cowen Reefer needs truck repair see pics
$19.99
Lionel 2657 Lionel Lines Lawrence Cowen passenger car
Lionel 2657 Lionel Lines Lawrence Cowen passenger car
$100.00
LIONEL TRAINS 19528 JOSHUA LIONEL COWEN REEFER  SHARP LNIOB
LIONEL TRAINS 19528 JOSHUA LIONEL COWEN REEFER SHARP LNIOB
$22.00
Lionel  6 9429Joshua Lionel CowenThe early years free shipping
Lionel 6 9429Joshua Lionel CowenThe early years free shipping
$17.58
Lionel O GAUGE No 6 9429 Joshua Lionel Cowen Box Car The Early Years NIB
Lionel O GAUGE No 6 9429 Joshua Lionel Cowen Box Car The Early Years NIB
$14.99
Lionel 6 9429 Joshua Lionel Cowen boxcar the early years O gauge new w box
Lionel 6 9429 Joshua Lionel Cowen boxcar the early years O gauge new w box
$15.50
Lionel O Scale Joshua L Cowen Reefer Item 6 19528 New
Lionel O Scale Joshua L Cowen Reefer Item 6 19528 New
$14.95
RARE 2000LIONEL 9434 CENTENIAL 100 YEARS JOSHUA LIONEL COWEN COLLECTOR CAR
RARE 2000LIONEL 9434 CENTENIAL 100 YEARS JOSHUA LIONEL COWEN COLLECTOR CAR
$34.00
LIONEL 6421 JOSHUA L COWEN BAY WINDOW CABOOSE NIOB LIMITED EDITION 1982
LIONEL 6421 JOSHUA L COWEN BAY WINDOW CABOOSE NIOB LIMITED EDITION 1982
$37.95
LIONEL 9429 JOSHUA L COWEN THE EARLY YEARS BOX CAR NIOB LIMITED EDITION 1980
LIONEL 9429 JOSHUA L COWEN THE EARLY YEARS BOX CAR NIOB LIMITED EDITION 1980
$22.95
LIONEL 9431 JOSHUA L COWEN THE PRE WAR YEARS BOX CAR NIOB LIMITED EDITION 1980
LIONEL 9431 JOSHUA L COWEN THE PRE WAR YEARS BOX CAR NIOB LIMITED EDITION 1980
$23.95
LIONEL 9430 JOSHUA L COWEN THE STD GAUGE YEARS BOX CAR NIOB LIMITED EDITION 1980
LIONEL 9430 JOSHUA L COWEN THE STD GAUGE YEARS BOX CAR NIOB LIMITED EDITION 1980
$23.95
LIONEL 9434 JOSHUA L COWEN JLC THE MAN BOX CAR NIOB LIMITED EDITION 1980
LIONEL 9434 JOSHUA L COWEN JLC THE MAN BOX CAR NIOB LIMITED EDITION 1980
$29.95
LIONEL O SCALE JOSHUA LIONEL COWEN GOLDEN YEARS BOX CAR ITEM 6 9433 NIB
LIONEL O SCALE JOSHUA LIONEL COWEN GOLDEN YEARS BOX CAR ITEM 6 9433 NIB
$25.00
LIONEL 6 9434 Joshua Lionel Cowen Box Car in box
LIONEL 6 9434 Joshua Lionel Cowen Box Car in box
$19.99
LIONEL 115th ANNIVERSARY BOXCAR O GAUGE train box car MADE IN USA 6 82992 NEW
LIONEL 115th ANNIVERSARY BOXCAR O GAUGE train box car MADE IN USA 6 82992 NEW
$84.84
Lionel 6 9431 Joshua Lionel Cowen single door boxcar diecast trucks never used
Lionel 6 9431 Joshua Lionel Cowen single door boxcar diecast trucks never used
$18.75
Lionel Stock Certificate 1951 Joshuas Cowens Daughter from Company Sale
Lionel Stock Certificate 1951 Joshuas Cowens Daughter from Company Sale
$9.95
Lionel 9429 31 Lot of Joshua Lionel Cowen Years Series Box Cars Limted Edition
Lionel 9429 31 Lot of Joshua Lionel Cowen Years Series Box Cars Limted Edition
$9.99
Lionel Joshua Cowen Commemorative Boxcar 9429
Lionel Joshua Cowen Commemorative Boxcar 9429
$22.95
Lionel Joshua Cowen Commemorative Boxcar 9430
Lionel Joshua Cowen Commemorative Boxcar 9430
$22.95
Lionel Joshua Cowen Commemorative Boxcar 9431
Lionel Joshua Cowen Commemorative Boxcar 9431
$22.95


Recently Purchased Lionel Cowen:


joshua lionel cowen commemorative 464 hudson steam locomotive w display case, joshua lionel cowen limited edition locomotive amp; tender, lionel joshua l cowen railroad reefer car wbox 619528 new box made usamich, vintage joshua lionel cowen limited edition 1982 train with disply, lionel 69431joshua lionel cowenthe pre war years free shipping, lionel 69429 joshua lionel cowen box car the early years o gaugea beaut, lionel 69434 joshua lionel cowen single door boxcar diecast trucksnever used, lionel 69431 joshua lionel cowen box car the prewar years o gaugea beaut, lionel 69430 josuha lionel cowen the standard gauge years free shipping, lionel 9434 joshua lionel cowen box car, lionel 69429joshua lionel cowenthe early years free shipping, lionel 69429 joshua cowen boxcar the early years 190, lionel 9429 31 lot of joshua lionel cowen years series box cars limted edition , lionel stock certificate 1951 joshuas cowens daughter from company sale, original joshua lionel cowen stock certificate issued to him in 1951, lionel 69431 joshua lionel cowen single door boxcar diecast trucksnever used, rare lionel stock certificate 1958 issued to and signed by joshua cowens wife, rare 2000lionel 9434 centenial 100 years joshua lionel cowen collector car, lionel 69429 joshua lionel cowen boxcar the early years o gaugenew w box, lionel o gauge no 69429 joshua lionel cowen box car the early years nib, lionel 38009 denver amp; rio grande challenger cowen series, lionel modern 9434 joshua lionel cowen boxcar niob, lionel modern 9433 joshua lionel cowen boxcar niob, 4 lionel o ga cars caboose sunoco tanker josh cowen amp; northern pacific boxcars, lionel 66421 joshua lionel cowen bay window caboose, lionel 9434 joshua l cowen jlc the man box car niob limited edition 1980, lionel 6421 joshua l cowen bay window caboose niob limited edition 1980, lionel 9433 joshua l cowen the golden years box car niob limited edition 1980, lionel 9429 joshua l cowen the early years box car niob limited edition 1980, lionel 9431 joshua l cowen the pre war years box car niob limited edition 1980, lionel 9430 joshua l cowen the std gauge years box car niob limited edition 1980, lionel joshua lionel cowen box car 69429 the early years collector car, lionel joshua lionel cowen box car 69430 the standard gauge years collector car, lionel 69433 joshua lionel cowen golden years box car nib 899, lionel o joshua lionel cowen 74741 amp; 96974 rolling stock lot, lionel 69434 joshua lionel cowen box car in box, lionel o scale joshua lionel cowen golden years box caritem 69433nib, lionel 68210 joshua l cowen 464 steam locomotive amp; tender lnbox, lionel o gauge jasshua lionel cowen reefer car 19528 brand new mint, lionel oscale joshua lionel cowen the man box car 69434 unused lnib, lionel o gauge joshua lionel cowen bay window caboose 66421 , lionel trains 9434 joshua lionel cowen jlc the man boxcar lniob sharp , nos lionel joshua l cowen reefer 619528 1992 ogauge 3rail track orangered, lionel trains 9430 joshua lionel cowen the std gauge years boxcar lniob sharp , lionel 619528 joshua l cowen reefer car nib, joshua lionel cowen box car the pre war years lionel 69431 o gauge, joshua lionel cowen box car the standard gauge years lionel 69430 o gauge, joshua lionel cowen box car the early years lionel 69429 o gauge, joshua lionel cowen bay window caboose lionel 66421 o gauge, lionel train joshua cowen post war box car 69432 limited edition empty box, lionel 69430 joshua lionel cowen box car standard gauge yearsob, lionel 69431 joshua lionel cowen box car the pre war years , lionel joshua lionel cowen the man boxcar 69434, lionel trains 66421 joshua lionel cowen bay window caboose wob, 1992 lionel 619528 joshua lionel cowen reefer l0106, lionel 69430 the standard gauge joshua cowen birthday 195 c7 , lionel 39202 o gauge joshua lionel cowen centennial box car, lionel 66421 joshua lionel cowen bay window caboose 1982 c9 displayed, all aboardthe story of joshua lionel cowen amp; his ltc, lionel modern 69434 joshua lionel cowen boxcar new in original box, lionel modern 619528 joshua lionel cowen reefer niob 1989 very sharp, lionel modern 6421 joshua lionel cowen bay window caboose niob 1982 illum sharp, lionel trains 9431 joshua lionel cowen the pre war years boxcar lniob sharp , lionel trains 9429 joshua lionel cowen the early years box car lniob sharp , lionel trains no 19528 joshua l cowen reefer very nice, lionel joshua lionel cowen bay window caboose lighted 66421 628, lionel 69434 joshua cowen the man 40 railroad freight box car train car, lionel joshua lionel cowen the man box car 69434 euc, lionel o and 027 joshua lionel cowen the early years box car 69429 euc, lionel joshua lionel cowen the pre war years 69431 euc, lionel joshua lionel cowen the standard gauge years 69430 euc, lionel joshua lionel cowen bay window caboose 66421 euc, lionel o gauge no 69431 joshua lionel cowen box car the pre war yearsnew, lionel 638081 camp;o 2666 allegheny jlc cowen steam locomotive amp; tender tmcc , all aboard story of joshua lionel cowen amp; lionel trains history 1st printing sof, lionel 69429 joshua lionel cowen box car the early years nib , lionel 69434 jlc the man uncatalogued boxcar lionel electric toys joshua cowen



Comments are closed.