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Lionel Cowen

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what materials are used to make torches/flashlights? ?

could anyone tell me what materials have been used to make torches/flashlights, ever since they were invented or as far back as possible - and maybe why new materials have been used and older materials were dropped, or a site that helps me with this information. it will be very very helpful! thank you!! ^ w ^

Modern flashlights are made using a standard bulb (normally with tungsten as the filament), a wire, switch, glass or clear plastic lens and plastic housing. Normally they are powered by alkaline batteries, or Lithium cells. Some use LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) and can produce different coloured lights (White, yellow, blue..) Different gasses in bulbs will produce different colours.

You can get some flashlights with metal housing, but this has to be insulated so it doesnt conduct the energy out of the batteries and create a short circuit.

Some Flash lights use Halogen bubs, although these can give off a brighter beam, they are more flagile and expensive.

Prior to electicity candles were used, and then gas lamps. However in many situations this was, and still is, a health hazzard (e.g. mine workers. Naked flame + coal and gas...)

Here is apgae on the history of torches. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flashlight

Hre is the guy who invented it http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joshua_Lionel_Cowen

In general most materials were replace by lighter, safer and cheaper materials.

I hope that helps.

Find Lionel Cowen On eBay Below:

Lionel  19528 Joshua L Cowen Reefer
Lionel 19528 Joshua L Cowen Reefer
$24.00
Lionel 11126 Joshua Cowen Big Boy Locomotive  Tender Cab  4012 Legacy
Lionel 11126 Joshua Cowen Big Boy Locomotive Tender Cab 4012 Legacy
$1,350.00
Lionel 6 9434 Joshua Lionel Cowen Boxcar Joshua Lionel Cowen The Man NIB
Lionel 6 9434 Joshua Lionel Cowen Boxcar Joshua Lionel Cowen The Man NIB
$22.95
4 Lionel O ga Cars Caboose Sunoco Tanker Josh Cowen  Northern Pacific Boxcars
4 Lionel O ga Cars Caboose Sunoco Tanker Josh Cowen Northern Pacific Boxcars
$57.50
Lionel 6 9430 Joshua Lionel Cowen Boxcar The Standard Gauge Years11G
Lionel 6 9430 Joshua Lionel Cowen Boxcar The Standard Gauge Years11G
$24.00
Lionel 6 29091 Madison Lawrence Cowen Passenger Train Car O Gauge
Lionel 6 29091 Madison Lawrence Cowen Passenger Train Car O Gauge
$59.95
LIONEL 6 9432 JOSHUA COWEN POST WAR YEARS BOX CAR NIB UNRUN LOOK
LIONEL 6 9432 JOSHUA COWEN POST WAR YEARS BOX CAR NIB UNRUN LOOK
$35.00
lionel Joshus Lionel Cowen Box Car 6 9434 The Man
lionel Joshus Lionel Cowen Box Car 6 9434 The Man
$22.95
O Scale Lionel Gold Member Joshua Cowen Box Car Train
O Scale Lionel Gold Member Joshua Cowen Box Car Train
$9.99
Lionel  8210 Joshua L Cowen 4 6 4 Hudson Steam Locomotive  Tender 1982
Lionel 8210 Joshua L Cowen 4 6 4 Hudson Steam Locomotive Tender 1982
$350.00
LIONEL MODERN ERA 9429 JOSHUA LIONEL COWEN BOX CAR THE EARLY YEARS 1980
LIONEL MODERN ERA 9429 JOSHUA LIONEL COWEN BOX CAR THE EARLY YEARS 1980
$20.00
LIONEL MODERN ERA 9431 JOSHUA LIONEL COWEN BOX CAR THE PRE WAR YEARS 1980
LIONEL MODERN ERA 9431 JOSHUA LIONEL COWEN BOX CAR THE PRE WAR YEARS 1980
$20.00
Lionel O gauge Jasshua Lionel Cowen Reefer car  19528 Brand new Mint
Lionel O gauge Jasshua Lionel Cowen Reefer car 19528 Brand new Mint
$30.00
LIONEL TRAINS 6421 JOSHUA LIONEL COWEN BAY WINDOW CABOOSE LNIOB SHARP
LIONEL TRAINS 6421 JOSHUA LIONEL COWEN BAY WINDOW CABOOSE LNIOB SHARP
$35.00
1980 Lionel 6 9431 Joshua Lionel Cowen The Pre War Years Box Car New in Box
1980 Lionel 6 9431 Joshua Lionel Cowen The Pre War Years Box Car New in Box
$17.95
Joshua Lionel Cowen Box Car The Early Years Lionel  6 9429 New in Box
Joshua Lionel Cowen Box Car The Early Years Lionel 6 9429 New in Box
$13.95
Lionel Trains 6 6421 Joshua Lionel Cowen Bay Window Caboose New in Box
Lionel Trains 6 6421 Joshua Lionel Cowen Bay Window Caboose New in Box
$23.95
LIONEL 6 9430 Joshua Lionel Cowen Box Car The Standard Gauge Years New in Box
LIONEL 6 9430 Joshua Lionel Cowen Box Car The Standard Gauge Years New in Box
$19.95
EASTWOOD LIONEL JOSHUA LIONEL COWEN SIGNATURE EDITION TRUCKS 2 PIECE SET
EASTWOOD LIONEL JOSHUA LIONEL COWEN SIGNATURE EDITION TRUCKS 2 PIECE SET
$49.80
Lionel Joshua Lionel Cowen Box Car 6 9429 The Early Years Collector Car
Lionel Joshua Lionel Cowen Box Car 6 9429 The Early Years Collector Car
$23.95
NIB Lionel O Gauge Joshua Lionel Cowen The Man Box Car 6 9434
NIB Lionel O Gauge Joshua Lionel Cowen The Man Box Car 6 9434
$30.00
NIB Lionel O Gauge Joshua Lionel Cowen The Pre War Years Box Car 6 9431
NIB Lionel O Gauge Joshua Lionel Cowen The Pre War Years Box Car 6 9431
$26.25
NIB Lionel O Gauge Joshua Lionel Cowen The Early Years Box Car 6 9429
NIB Lionel O Gauge Joshua Lionel Cowen The Early Years Box Car 6 9429
$30.00
LIONEL TRAIN JOSHUA COWEN THE EARLY YEARS RAILROAD FREIGHT BOX CAR 6 9429
LIONEL TRAIN JOSHUA COWEN THE EARLY YEARS RAILROAD FREIGHT BOX CAR 6 9429
$22.00
NIB Lionel O Gauge Joshua Lionel Cowen Standard Gauge Years Box Car 6 9430
NIB Lionel O Gauge Joshua Lionel Cowen Standard Gauge Years Box Car 6 9430
$28.50
Lionel 6 19528 Joshua L Cowen Boxcar O Gauge
Lionel 6 19528 Joshua L Cowen Boxcar O Gauge
$15.00
Lionel 6 9429 Joshua Lionel Cowen Box Car The Early Years O Gauge Trains
Lionel 6 9429 Joshua Lionel Cowen Box Car The Early Years O Gauge Trains
$14.99
Lionel 6 9431 Joshua Lionel Cowen Box Car The Pre War Years O Gauge Model Trains
Lionel 6 9431 Joshua Lionel Cowen Box Car The Pre War Years O Gauge Model Trains
$14.99
Lionel 6 9430 Joshua Lionel Cowen Box Car The Standard Gauge Years O Gauge
Lionel 6 9430 Joshua Lionel Cowen Box Car The Standard Gauge Years O Gauge
$17.99
Lionel Joshua Lionel Cowen Reefer 6 19528
Lionel Joshua Lionel Cowen Reefer 6 19528
$21.99
Joshua Lionel Cowen 6421 9429 9430x2 9431 9432 9433 9434 UNRUN OB
Joshua Lionel Cowen 6421 9429 9430x2 9431 9432 9433 9434 UNRUN OB
$99.00
Lionel Electric Trains Joshua Lionel Cowen Commerative Box Car 6 9430
Lionel Electric Trains Joshua Lionel Cowen Commerative Box Car 6 9430
$18.95
Lionel Joshua Lionel Cowen Box Car O gauge NEW
Lionel Joshua Lionel Cowen Box Car O gauge NEW
$15.00
Lionel no 7817 O gauge Toy Fair Box Car special edition Joshua Cowen 1 12
Lionel no 7817 O gauge Toy Fair Box Car special edition Joshua Cowen 1 12
$8.49
LIONEL 1982 Hudson Joshua Lionel Cowen Steam Locomotive 4 6 4 and Tender OB Mint
LIONEL 1982 Hudson Joshua Lionel Cowen Steam Locomotive 4 6 4 and Tender OB Mint
$194.95
All Aboard Story of Joshua Lionel Cowen  Lionel Trains History 1st printing sof
All Aboard Story of Joshua Lionel Cowen Lionel Trains History 1st printing sof
$9.95
ALL ABOARD THE STORY OF JOSHUA LIONEL COWEN
ALL ABOARD THE STORY OF JOSHUA LIONEL COWEN
$12.99
Lionel 6 19528 Joshua L Cowen Reefer
Lionel 6 19528 Joshua L Cowen Reefer
$14.99
Lionel 6 6421 Joshua Lionel Cowen Bay Window Caboose O Gauge In Original Box
Lionel 6 6421 Joshua Lionel Cowen Bay Window Caboose O Gauge In Original Box
$29.95
LIONEL O GAUGE 9432 JOSHUA LIONEL COWEN BOXCAR BRAND NEW IN ORIGINAL BOX
LIONEL O GAUGE 9432 JOSHUA LIONEL COWEN BOXCAR BRAND NEW IN ORIGINAL BOX
$19.99


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