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where is the energy lost in hydro-electric power stations?

HELPPPPP!!

Hydroelectric power generation is by far the most efficient method of large scale electric power generation. Energy flows are concentrated and can be controlled. The conversion process captures kinetic energy and converts it directly into electric energy. There are no inefficient intermediate thermodynamic or chemical processes and no heat losses.

The conversion efficiency of a hydroelectric power plant depends mainly on the type of water turbine used and can be as high as 95% for large installations. Smaller plants with output powers less than 5 MW may have efficiencies between 80 and 85 %.

Losses can be broken down in terms of:
1) incomplete extraction of available water energy,
2) water energy loss from wall friction,
3) turbine losses,
4) mechanical losses between the turbine and generator systems,
5) losses from generator inefficiencies, and
6) losses from transformer and other power conditioning inefficiencies.

The turbine loses can be small. Both the Pelton Turbines and Francis Turbines have efficiencies up to 95%.

Regardless of these losses, hydroelectric facilities are the most efficient means of creating electricity. Most modern hydroelectric power plants (either recently constructed or refurbished) can create electricity from hydropower at overall efficiencies between 80-90%, and advanced hydropower systems have the capacity to reach overall electricity generation efficiencies above 90%.

http://www.mpoweruk.com/hydro_power.htm

http://wiki.uiowa.edu/display/greenergy/Hydroelectric+Power

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