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how did people get around in the 1860s?

i cant find out how they got around. please help?

In the 1860s there were four basic means of transportation: by foot, by beast of burden, by train, or by water.

By foot means that people walked or ran from place to place. However, there were some vehicles such as sedan chairs in which the individual was either pulled or carried by someone else. In this case it's still a form of foot travel as it is someone doing the walking to get you from one place to another.

By beast of burden means by either riding an animal or riding in a cart, wagon, or carriage pulled by one or more animals. Generally speaking you'd be looking at horse, ponies, mules, donkeys, and oxen doing the pulling. Though I have read of hitching sheep, goats, and even geese to small child size wagons (and with geese it was really small kids like under five years of age, though geese were uncommon). And of course there were dog sleds which would have been used in the winter months.

By train is itself rather obvious, taking a train to get from place to place. Railroads had becoming the major form of land travel over long distances by the 1860s, allowing people to quickly travel from one city to the next within a short span of time. They also made the delivery of mail to distant locations faster. However, the only locomotives available were steam powered locomotives which required a supply of either lumber or coal and also a supply of water to keep moving. Which meant trains had to stop to take on water every so often or else the boiler on the locomotive could explode from over heating. They also had to stop to take on fuel though with a tender car they could travel further distances before the need for more wood or coal arose than the did for the need for more water.

By water means any kind of water transport. If it's a short distance and people knew how to swim, then it might be swimming. But typically this meant some kind of water craft. A raft, a canoe, a rowboat, a barge, a sail boat, a paddle wheel steamboat (if there were two paddle wheels located on the sides then it was a side wheller), or a ship. Rafts were still commonly used to cross rivers and wide streams at a spot where they couldn't be forded (that is to say where they were shallow enough to wade across) and where no bridge exsisted yet. They also saw use as a way to haul cargo, though they weren't as likely to carry as much cargo as a barge or a steamboat. Steamboats were the major means of moving people and cargo up and down major rivers, though like trains they required fuel and water to move (although they could flow with the current of the river when traveling down stream). Barges on the other hand either had to be pulled by an animal (or maybe a steamboat) or poled by hand (think the gondolas of Venice if you're not sure about poled), though again they could be allowed to flow with the current. Sailboats were actually smaller than ships, thoug unlike most of these depending on their size they might see use on both rivers and seas or oceans. Ships really would have only been able to navigate the deepest rivers and lakes so they would have been used more on the oceans and seas. Sail powered ships were still present, but steampower was fast replacing sail power on the worlds oceans. Side wheelers were common among among steamships (perhaps more so than they were with steamboats), though the screw or propeller was already in exsistence before the 1860s (in fact John Ericsoon of USS Monitor fame had installed his design for twin screws on the USS Princeton in the 1840s, which he had first tried selling to the British Admiralty in the 1830s and they had turned him down. However, most steamships by the 1860s were actually hybrids. That is to say they were both steam and sail powered. As part of their cargo capacity had to be taken up by their own fuel supply, they would take on as little fuel for the steam boilers as they could get away with to make more room for cargo and then use their steam engines sparingly so they didn't burn through their fuel too fast. It would therefore be used when they either needed speed or there was too great a lull in the wind and they needed to make a deadline.

Find Tender Car On eBay Below:

Vintage 1960s O Scale Marx Southern Pacific Lines Tender Car
Vintage 1960s O Scale Marx Southern Pacific Lines Tender Car
$9.95
LIONEL 8141 LOCO TENDER W CHUFF  CARS  USED LOT  15308
LIONEL 8141 LOCO TENDER W CHUFF CARS USED LOT 15308
$39.95
Lionel 1061 Steam Locomotive  Lionel Lines Coal Tender Car Very Clean
Lionel 1061 Steam Locomotive Lionel Lines Coal Tender Car Very Clean
$24.99
VINTAGE LIONEL COAL CAR TENDER O SCALE
VINTAGE LIONEL COAL CAR TENDER O SCALE
$29.99
Lionel 6 18606 NYC 2 6 4 Steam Locomotive Tender  6 CAR TRAIN 6 16016 21
Lionel 6 18606 NYC 2 6 4 Steam Locomotive Tender 6 CAR TRAIN 6 16016 21
$325.00
LIONEL 6 8803 CHESSIE SYSTEM 2 8 4 LOCOMOTIVE AND TENDER w 5 PASSENGER CARS
LIONEL 6 8803 CHESSIE SYSTEM 2 8 4 LOCOMOTIVE AND TENDER w 5 PASSENGER CARS
$649.99
Marx Steam Locomotive 666 + Coal Car Tender Powered Southern Pacific Lines Metal
Marx Steam Locomotive 666 + Coal Car Tender Powered Southern Pacific Lines Metal
$69.00
Lionel 6 8801 Blue Comet Steam Locomotive  Tender plus 6 Passenger Cars LN OB
Lionel 6 8801 Blue Comet Steam Locomotive Tender plus 6 Passenger Cars LN OB
$224.50
Vintage Prewar Lionel Train Set 1668 E Locomotive with Tender  3 Passenger Cars
Vintage Prewar Lionel Train Set 1668 E Locomotive with Tender 3 Passenger Cars
$140.00
6 11153  6 27426 Stourbridge Lion Locomotive  Tender w 2 Anthracite Coal Cars
6 11153 6 27426 Stourbridge Lion Locomotive Tender w 2 Anthracite Coal Cars
$569.95
Lionel 8101 Chicago  Alton 4 6 4 Locomtive  659 Tender w 6 Car Set  Boxes
Lionel 8101 Chicago Alton 4 6 4 Locomtive 659 Tender w 6 Car Set Boxes
$130.00
POSTWAR 1947 LIONEL 0 27 1666 STEAM LOCO 2 6 2 W 2666W TENDER + 3 PULLMAN CARS
POSTWAR 1947 LIONEL 0 27 1666 STEAM LOCO 2 6 2 W 2666W TENDER + 3 PULLMAN CARS
$99.00
VINTAGE 1963 LIONEL 1062 STEAM ENGINE 0 4 0 +1062T TENDER + 2 HOPPER CARS
VINTAGE 1963 LIONEL 1062 STEAM ENGINE 0 4 0 +1062T TENDER + 2 HOPPER CARS
$20.00
Lionel 259E Locomotive +Tender  Cars  O  Scale
Lionel 259E Locomotive +Tender Cars O Scale
$79.95
MTH Railking O O27 30 79488 Penn Central Crane Tender Car NIB
MTH Railking O O27 30 79488 Penn Central Crane Tender Car NIB
$59.95
MTH Railking O O27 30 7939 MTH RRC Crane Tender Car NIB
MTH Railking O O27 30 7939 MTH RRC Crane Tender Car NIB
$39.95
MTH Railking O O27 30 79073 New York Central Crane Tender Car NIB
MTH Railking O O27 30 79073 New York Central Crane Tender Car NIB
$39.95
MTH O Scale Premier 20 98391 Bessemer  Lake Erie Crane Tender Car NIB
MTH O Scale Premier 20 98391 Bessemer Lake Erie Crane Tender Car NIB
$59.95
Lionel lot set 2 4 2 locomotive with tender gondola tank car  caboose
Lionel lot set 2 4 2 locomotive with tender gondola tank car caboose
$59.99
LIONEL POSTWAR 249 ENGINE TENDER AND 4 CARS
LIONEL POSTWAR 249 ENGINE TENDER AND 4 CARS
$25.00
VINTAGE O GAUGE NORFOLK AND WESTERN TENDER COAL CAR
VINTAGE O GAUGE NORFOLK AND WESTERN TENDER COAL CAR
$9.99
Vintage Unique Lines Art Train Set Tin Windup 742 Locomotive Tender
Vintage Unique Lines Art Train Set Tin Windup 742 Locomotive Tender
$26.00
2 MTH O FRT CARS CRANE TENDER AND MILWAUKEE GONDOLA
2 MTH O FRT CARS CRANE TENDER AND MILWAUKEE GONDOLA
$39.00
VINTAGE LIONEL 681 LOCOMOTIVE2046W 50 TENDER  6561 CABLE CAR W BOXES
VINTAGE LIONEL 681 LOCOMOTIVE2046W 50 TENDER 6561 CABLE CAR W BOXES
$41.00
VINTAGE LIONEL TRAIN ENGINE 8042 NICKEL PLATE COAL TENDER CAR HERSHEYS BOX CAR
VINTAGE LIONEL TRAIN ENGINE 8042 NICKEL PLATE COAL TENDER CAR HERSHEYS BOX CAR
$49.99
Joy Line Marx 350 Wind Up Loco  Tender with 3 Freight Cars
Joy Line Marx 350 Wind Up Loco Tender with 3 Freight Cars
$379.95
OLIONELTENDER NEW YORK CENTRAL FLAT CAR PAINTED RUSTYCUSTOM BOXES COLLECT
OLIONELTENDER NEW YORK CENTRAL FLAT CAR PAINTED RUSTYCUSTOM BOXES COLLECT
$95.00
MTH Railking O O27 30 79029 Jersey Central Crane Tender Car NIB
MTH Railking O O27 30 79029 Jersey Central Crane Tender Car NIB
$39.95
LIONEL COAL BAGGED train scenery dump car tender tipple load hopper 6 12732 NEW
LIONEL COAL BAGGED train scenery dump car tender tipple load hopper 6 12732 NEW
$6.84
30 79550  30 79554 BNSF Crane  Crane Tender Car MTH
30 79550 30 79554 BNSF Crane Crane Tender Car MTH
$119.95
General Set Loco Whistle  Bell Tender CW 80 Track Switches 3 Cars PRICE REDUCED
General Set Loco Whistle Bell Tender CW 80 Track Switches 3 Cars PRICE REDUCED
$329.50
MARX O TRAIN SET 490 SOUTHERN PACIFIC 0 4 0 LOCO TENDER AND 3 FREIGHT CARS
MARX O TRAIN SET 490 SOUTHERN PACIFIC 0 4 0 LOCO TENDER AND 3 FREIGHT CARS
$9.50
LIONEL 784 B  A HUDSON 4 6 4 ENGINE TENDER  6 CARS
LIONEL 784 B A HUDSON 4 6 4 ENGINE TENDER 6 CARS
$829.14
MARX GROUP OF 6 LITHO TENDERS AND CARS 4 PC O GAUGE X5875
MARX GROUP OF 6 LITHO TENDERS AND CARS 4 PC O GAUGE X5875
$18.99
LIONEL PREWAR O GAUGE LIONEL JR ENGINE AND TENDER WITH CARS 1690 AND 1691
LIONEL PREWAR O GAUGE LIONEL JR ENGINE AND TENDER WITH CARS 1690 AND 1691
$40.00
LIONEL Prewar Tin Litho Freight Outfit 1688E with Tender Caboose and 3 Cars
LIONEL Prewar Tin Litho Freight Outfit 1688E with Tender Caboose and 3 Cars
$230.00
Lionel O gauge Boy Scouts of America crane car tender37013brand New Mint no box
Lionel O gauge Boy Scouts of America crane car tender37013brand New Mint no box
$35.00
MTH 30 79488 Penn Central Crane Tender Car
MTH 30 79488 Penn Central Crane Tender Car
$53.99
Marx Train 3 Marx Cars 2 New York Central Hoppers 1 UP Metal Tender
Marx Train 3 Marx Cars 2 New York Central Hoppers 1 UP Metal Tender
$15.95
Lionel O Gauge Assorted Postwar Freight Cars  Tender 10
Lionel O Gauge Assorted Postwar Freight Cars Tender 10
$27.13


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